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An important part of healthy eating is keeping foods safe. It is estimated that foodborne illness affects about 1 in 6 Americans or 48 million people , leading to , hospitalizations and 3, deaths every year. Individuals in their own homes can reduce contaminants and help keep food safe to eat by following safe food handling practices.
Four basic food safety principles work together to reduce the risk of foodborne illness—Clean, Separate, Cook, and Chill. These four principles are the cornerstones of Fight BAC!
Microbes, such as bacteria and viruses, can be spread throughout the kitchen and get onto hands, cutting boards, utensils, countertops, reusable grocery bags, and foods. Frequent cleaning of surfaces is essential in preventing cross-contamination. To reduce microbes and contaminants from foods, all produce, regardless of where it was grown or purchased, should be thoroughly rinsed.
This is particularly important for produce that will be eaten raw. Hands should be washed before and after preparing food, especially after handling raw seafood, meat, poultry, or eggs, and before eating. In addition, hand washing is recommended after going to the bathroom, changing diapers, coughing or sneezing, tending to someone who is sick or injured, touching animals, and handling garbage.
Hands should be washed using soap and water. Soaps with antimicrobial agents are not needed for consumer hand washing, and their use over time can lead to growth of microbes resistant to these agents. Hand sanitizers are not as effective when hands are visibly dirty or greasy.
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Surfaces should be washed with hot, soapy water. A solution of 1 tablespoon of unscented, liquid chlorine bleach per gallon of water can be used to sanitize surfaces. All kitchen surfaces should be kept clean, including tables, countertops, sinks, utensils, cutting boards, and appliances.
For example, the insides of microwaves easily become soiled with food, allowing microbes to grow. They should be cleaned often. Vegetables and fruits.
All produce, regardless of where it was grown or purchased, should be thoroughly rinsed. However, any precut packaged items, like lettuce or baby carrots, are labeled as prewashed and ready-to-eat. These products can be eaten without further rinsing. Seafood, meat, and poultry. Raw seafood, meat, and poultry should not be rinsed. Bacteria in these raw juices can spread to other foods, utensils, and surfaces, leading to foodborne illness. Separating foods that are ready-to-eat from those that are raw or that might otherwise contain harmful microbes is key to preventing foodborne illness.
Attention should be given to separating foods at every step of food handling, from purchase to preparation to serving. Seafood, meat, poultry, and egg dishes should be cooked to the recommended safe minimum internal temperature to destroy harmful microbes see Table A It is not always possible to tell whether a food is safe by how it looks.
A food thermometer should be used to ensure that food is safely cooked and that cooked food is held at safe temperatures until eaten.
In general, the food thermometer should be placed in the thickest part of the food, not touching bone, fat, or gristle. Food thermometers should be cleaned with hot, soapy water before and after each use.
Temperature rules also apply to microwave cooking. Microwave cooking instructions on food packages always should be followed. Consumers should cook foods to the minimum internal temperatures shown below. The temperature should be measured with a clean food thermometer before removing meat from the heat source. For safety and quality, allow meat to rest for at least 3 minutes before carving or consuming.
For reasons of personal preference, consumers may choose to cook meat to higher temperatures. Cook shrimp, lobster, and scallops until they reach their appropriate color. The flesh of shrimp and lobster should be an opaque milky white color. Scallops should be opaque milky white and firm.
Cook clams, mussels, and oysters until their shells open. This means that they are done. Harmful bacteria, viruses, and parasites usually do not change the look or smell of food.
This makes it impossible for consumers to know whether food is contaminated. Consumption of raw or undercooked animal food products increases the risk of contracting a foodborne illness. Raw or undercooked foods commonly eaten in the United States include eggs e.
Cooking foods to recommended safe minimum internal temperatures and consuming only pasteurized dairy products are the best ways to reduce the risk of foodborne illness from animal products.
Always use pasteurized eggs or egg products when preparing foods that are made with raw eggs e. Consumers who choose to eat raw seafood despite the risks should choose seafood that has been previously frozen, which will kill parasites but not harmful microbes. Some individuals, including women who are pregnant and their unborn children, young children, older adults, and individuals with weakened immune systems such as those living with HIV infection, cancer treatment, organ transplant, or liver disease , are more susceptible than the general population to the effects of foodborne illnesses such as listeriosis and salmonellosis.
The outcome of contracting a foodborne illness for these individuals can be severe or even fatal. They need to take special care to keep foods safe and to not eat foods that increase the risk of foodborne illness.
Women who are pregnant, infants and young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems should only eat foods containing seafood, meat, poultry, or eggs that have been cooked to recommended safe minimum internal temperatures.
They also should take special precautions not to consume unpasteurized raw juice or milk or foods made from unpasteurized milk, like some soft cheeses e. They should reheat deli and luncheon meats and hot dogs to steaming hot to kill Listeria, the bacteria that causes listeriosis, and not eat raw sprouts, which also can carry harmful bacteria.
Дом из кирпича эконом класса видео своими руками
Federal Food Safety Gateway: www. Skip to content Menu Dietary Guidelines. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Appendix 2. Glossary of Terms Appendix 7. Alcohol Appendix Food Sources of Potassium Appendix Food Sources of Calcium Appendix Food Sources of Vitamin D Appendix Food Sources of Dietary Fiber Appendix Food Safety Principles and Guidance Return to health.
Print this section Appendix Food Safety Principles and Guidance An important part of healthy eating is keeping foods safe. Clean Microbes, such as bacteria and viruses, can be spread throughout the kitchen and get onto hands, cutting boards, utensils, countertops, reusable grocery bags, and foods. Hands Hands should be washed before and after preparing food, especially after handling raw seafood, meat, poultry, or eggs, and before eating.
Wash Hands With Soap and Water Wet hands with clean running water warm or cold , turn off tap, and apply soap. Rub hands together to make lather and scrub the back of hands, between fingers, and under nails for at least 20 seconds.
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Rinse hands well under running water. Dry hands using a clean towel or air dry them. Surfaces Surfaces should be washed with hot, soapy water.
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Keep Appliances Clean At least once a week, throw out refrigerated foods that should no longer be eaten. Cooked leftovers should be discarded after 4 days; raw poultry and ground meats, 1 to 2 days. Wipe up spills immediately—clean food-contact surfaces often. Clean the inside and the outside of appliances. Pay particular attention to buttons and handles where cross-contamination to hands can occur. Foods Vegetables and fruits. Rinse fresh vegetables and fruits under running water just before eating, cutting, or cooking.
Do not use soap or detergent to clean produce; commercial produce washes are not needed. Even if you plan to peel or cut the produce before eating, it is still important to thoroughly rinse it first to prevent microbes from transferring from the outside to the inside of the produce.
Scrub the skin or rind of firm produce, such as melons and cucumbers, with a clean produce brush while you rinse it. Dry produce with a clean cloth towel or paper towel to further reduce bacteria that may be present. Wet produce can allow remaining microbes to multiply faster. Separate Separating foods that are ready-to-eat from those that are raw or that might otherwise contain harmful microbes is key to preventing foodborne illness. Separate Foods When Shopping Place raw seafood, meat, and poultry in plastic bags.
Separate them from other foods in your grocery cart and bags. Store raw seafood, meat, and poultry below ready-to-eat foods in your refrigerator. Clean reusable grocery bags regularly. Wash canvas and cloth bags in the washing machine and wash plastic reusable bags with hot, soapy water. Separate Foods When Preparing and Serving Food Always use a clean cutting board for fresh produce and a separate one for raw seafood, meat, and poultry.
Always use a clean plate to serve and eat food. Never place cooked food back on the same plate or cutting board that previously held raw food. Cook and Chill Seafood, meat, poultry, and egg dishes should be cooked to the recommended safe minimum internal temperature to destroy harmful microbes see Table A When shopping, the 2-hour window includes the amount of time food is in the grocery basket, car, and on the kitchen counter.